Integrative Agent as Energy Supplier of Distributed Energy Resources at The Distribution Level

Luis Alejandro Arias Barragán, Edwin Rivas Trujillo, Francisco Santamaria

Abstract


Context: It has been observed the incipient development of the integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in electricity markets at the distribution level.


Method: DER participation by an integrator agent is proposed. The integrator agent allows DER to participate as suppliers of energy to the network operator and / or the energy market at the distri-bution level. Sequence diagrams and mathematical formulas were proposed, for fixing the price of energy by relying on a case study.


Results: The results show the feasibility of the integrator agent to participate as a supplier of elec-tricity to the distribution network.


Conclusions: Applications using cloud computing allow users to access information on the DER agent resources in general and to the state of the network demands. Pricing schemes proposed al-low DER participation through the integrating agent as a supplier of energy.


Keywords


agente integrador; recursos energéticos distribuidos; mercado de la energía; red de distribución; planta virtual de potencia

References


B. Wojszczyk, “Deployment of advanced Smart Grid solutions - Global examples & lessons learned”. Innov. Smart Grid Technol. (ISGT), 2012 IEEE PES, p. 1, 2012.

N.-K. C. Nair and L. Zhang, “SmartGrid: Future networks for New Zealand power systems incorporating distributed generation”. Energy Policy, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 3418–3427, 2009.

J. Figueiredo and J. Martins, “Energy Production System Management - Renewable Energy Power Supply Integration with Building Automation System”. Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1120–1126, 2010.

N. R. Friedman, Distributed energy resources interconnection systems: technology review and research needs. no. September, pp. 1–163, 2002.

N. González-Cabrera, et al. “Nodal user’s demand response based on incentive based programs”. J. Mod. …, vol. 5, pp. 79–90, 2017.

H. Ren, W. Zhou, W. Gao, and Q. Wu, “Promotion of Energy Conservation in Developing Countries through the Combination of ESCO and CDM: A Case Study of Introducing Distributed Energy Resources into Chinese Urban Areas”. Energy Policy, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 8125–8136, 2011.

a Ipakchi, “Issues, Challenges and Opportunities for Utilization of Demand-side Resources in Support of Power System Operations”. Innov. Smart Grid Technol. (ISGT), 2012 IEEE PES, p. 1, 2012.

E. Mashhour and S. M. Moghaddas-Tafreshi, “Integration of Distributed Energy Resources into Low Voltage Grid: A Market-based Multiperiod Optimization Model”. Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 473–480, 2010.

M. Hyland, “Restructuring European Electricity Markets e A Panel Data Analysis”. Util. Policy, vol. 38, pp. 33–42, 2016.

C.-D. Dumitru and A. Gligor, “A Management Application for the Small Distributed Generation Systems of Electric Power Based on Renewable Energy”. Procedia Econ. Financ., vol. 15, no. 14, pp. 1428–1437, 2014.

L. I. Dulău, M. Abrudean, and D. Bică, “SCADA Simulation of a Distributed Generation System with Storage Technologies”. Procedia Technol., vol. 19, pp. 665–672, 2015.

M. Soshinskaya, W. H. J. Crijns-Graus, J. M. Guerrero, and J. C. Vasquez, “Microgrids: Experiences, Barriers and Success Factors”. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 40, pp. 659–672, 2014.

K. De Brabandere, K. Vanthournout, J. Driesen, G. Deconinck, and R. Belmans, “Control of Microgrids”. 2007 IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Gen. Meet., no. June, pp. 1–7, 2007.

A. Karabiber, C. Keles, A. Kaygusuz, and B. B. Alagoz, “An Approach for the Integration of Renewable Distributed Generation in hybrid DC/AC microgrids”. Renew. Energy, vol. 52, pp. 251–259, 2013.

O. Palizban, K. Kauhaniemi, and J. M. Guerrero, “Microgrids in Active Network Management - Part I: Hierarchical Control, Energy Storage, Virtual Power Plants, and Market Participation”. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 36, pp. 428–439, 2014.

T. Basso and R. DeBlasio, “IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status”. Grid-Interop, vol. 2030, no. September, pp. 5–8, 2011.

C. Lo Prete and B. F. Hobbs, “A Cooperative Game Theoretic Analysis of Incentives for Microgrids in Regulated Electricity Markets”. Appl. Energy, vol. 169, pp. 524–541, 2016.

D. Pudjianto, D. Pudjianto, C. Ramsay, C. Ramsay, G. Strbac, and G. Strbac, “Virtual Power Plant and System Integration of Distributed Energy Resources”. Renew. Power Gener. IET, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2007.

A. a. Bayod-Rújula, “Future Development of the Electricity Systems with Distributed Generation”. Energy, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 377–383, 2009.

M. Giuntoli and D. Poli, “Optimized Thermal and Electrical Scheduling of a Large Scale Virtual Power Plant in the Presence of Energy Storages”. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 942–955, 2013.

P. B. Andersen, B. Poulsen, M. Decker, C. Traeholt, and J. Ostergaard, “Evaluation of a Generic Virtual Power Plant framework using Service Oriented Architecture”. 2008 IEEE 2nd Int. Power Energy Conf., pp. 1212–1217, 2008.

L. A. Arias, E. Rivas, and C. Vega, Propuesta de diseño para un centro integral de reciclaje con inclusión de fuentes alternativas de energía, 2014.

M. Schäfer, O. Gretzschel, T. G. Schmitt, and H. Knerr, “Wastewater Treatment Plants as System Service Provider for Renewable Energy Storage and Control Energy in Virtual Power Plants – A Potential Analysis”. Energy Procedia, vol. 73, pp. 87–93, 2015.

K. Dietrich, J. M. Latorre, L. Olmos, and A. Ramos, “Modelling and Assessing the Impacts of Self Supply and Market-Revenue driven Virtual Power Plants”. Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 119, pp. 462–470, 2015.

A. Gubina, “Ancillary Services in the Distribution Network: Where are the Opportunities?”. no. December, 2015.

International Energy Agency, “World Energy Outlook 2013”. Agencia Int. Energía, p. 7, 2013.

F. M. Cleveland, “IEC 61850-7-420 Communications Standard for Distributed Energy Resources (DER)”. IEEE Power Energy Soc. 2008 Gen. Meet. Convers. Deliv. Electr. Energy 21st Century, PES, pp. 5–8, 2008.

T. Logenthiran, D. Srinivasan, and A. M. Khambadkone, “Multi-agent System for Energy Resource scheduling of Integrated Microgrids in a Distributed System”. Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 138–148, 2011.

H. K. Zadeh and M. Manjrekar, “A Novel IEC 61850-based Distribution line/cable Protection Scheme Design”. 2012 IEEE PES Innov. Smart Grid Technol. ISGT 2012, pp. 1–6, 2012.

M. Wierzbowski and B. Olek, “Integration of the Embedded Generation into Distribution Systems at the Competitive Markets”. Isgt 2014, pp. 1–5, 2014.

H. Dawidczak and H. Englert, “Integration of DER Systems into the Electrical Power System with a Generic IEC 61850 Interface”. Int. ETG-Kongress, vol. 9, pp. 1–5, 2013.

K. Christakou, “Sustainable Energy , Grids and Networks A unified Control Strategy for Active Distribution Networks Via Demand Response and Distributed Energy Storage Systems”. Sustain. Energy, Grids Networks, vol. 6, no. xxxx, pp. 1–6, 2016.

C.-D. Dumitru and A. Gligor, “SCADA Based Software for Renewable Energy Management System”. Procedia Econ. Financ., vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 262–267, 2012.

A. Colmenar-Santos, C. Reino-Rio, D. Borge-Diez, and E. Collado-Fernández, “Distributed Generation: A Review of Factors that can contribute Most to Achieve a Scenario of DG Units Embedded in the New Distribution Networks”. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 59, pp. 1130–1148, 2016.

R. H. Lasseter, “Microgrids and Distributed Generation”. J. Energy Eng., vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 144–149, 2007.

arias l Ramírez a., chica a., MicroRed inteligente sustentable de biogás para zona no interconectada, 2013.

M. Bayat, K. Sheshyekani, M. Hamzeh, and A. Rezazadeh, “Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response for Voltage and Frequency Support of MV Microgrids”. IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 1506–1516, 2016.

T. Basso and N. Friedman, “IEEE 1547 National Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Generation : How Could It Help My Facility ?”. http://www.osti.gov/bridge Available, no. November, p. 9, 2003.

J. Lai, H. Zhou, X. Lu, and Z. Liu, “Distributed Power Control for DERs based on Networked Multiagent Systems with Communication Delays”. Neurocomputing, vol. 179, pp. 135–143, 2016.

T. Sowa, S. Krengel, S. Koopmann, and J. Nowak, “Multi-criteria Operation Strategies of Power-to-heat-Systems in Virtual Power Plants with a High Penetration of Renewable Energies”. Energy Procedia, vol. 46, pp. 237–245, 2014.

E. C. N. Vega, O. David Florez Cediel, L. A. A. Barragan, and E. Rivas, “Distribution Networks Management System with Multi-target Operations using UML”. 2014 Ieee Andescon, pp. 1–1, 2014.

A. G. Zamani, A. Zakariazadeh, and S. Jadid, “Day-ahead Resource Scheduling of a Renewable Energy Based Virtual Power Plant”. Appl. Energy, vol. 169, pp. 324–340, 2016.

P. Ringler, D. Keles, and W. Fichtner, “Agent-based Modelling and Simulation of Smart Electricity Grids and Markets – A Literature Review”. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 57, pp. 205–215, 2016.

A. K. Basu, S. P. Chowdhury, S. Chowdhury, and S. Paul, “Microgrids: Energy Management by Strategic Deployment of DERs—A Comprehensive Survey”. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 4348–4356, 2011.

N. Etherden, V. Vyatkin, and M. Bollen, “Virtual Power Plant for Grid Services using IEC 61850”. IEEE Trans. Ind. Informatics, vol. 3203, no. c, pp. 1–1, 2015.

K. R. S. Kashyap and B. D. Reddy, “Ancillary Services And Stability Analysis Of Distributed Generation System”. vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 247–251, 2013.

S. C. Quintero, “Ancillary Services Review in Electrical Power Systems in desregulated Market”. 2013.

A. S. Financieros, Sector de comercialización de energía eléctrica 2014-2015, pp. 1–5, 2015.

Unidad de Planeación Minero - Energética (UPME), “Una Visión del Mercado Eléctrico Colombiano”. Merc. Energía Eléctrica en Colomb. -Análisis Comer. y Estrategias, pp. 1–110, 2004.

Unidad de Planeamiento Minero Energético and Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, Integración de las energías renovables no convencionales en Colombia. 2015.

D. A. Arenas, Mercado spot de energía y modelo alternativo para la fijación de un precio eficiente. pp. 1–37, 2014.

J. Gordijn and H. Akkermans, “Business Models for Distributed Generation in a Liberalized Market Environment”. vol. 77, pp. 1178–1188, 2007.

M. Junjie, W. Yulong, and L. Yang, “Size and Location of Distributed Generation in Distribution System Based on Immune Algorithm,” Syst. Eng. Procedia, vol. 4, no. 2011, pp. 124–132, 2012.

CREG (Comisión de Regulación de Energía y Gas), Metodología para la remuneración de la actividad de comercialización de energía eléctrica a usuarios regulados. Cartilla, 2012.

CREG (Comisión de Regulación de Energía y Gas), Tarifas de energía eléctrica ARIFAS DE ENERGÍA ELÉCTRICA ( $ / kWh ) reguladas por la comisión de regulación de energía y gas ( CREG ). 2015.

CREG (Comisión de Regulación de Energía y Gas), Creg138-2015. 2015.

CREG (Comision de Regulación and de E. y Gas), Creg240-2015. 2015.

J. Hu, A. Saleem, S. You, L. Nordström, M. Lind, and J. Østergaard, “A Multi-Agent System for Distribution Grid Congestion Management with Electric Vehicles”. Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell., vol. 38, pp. 45–58, 2015.

K. M. Muttaqi, A. D. T. Le, M. Negnevitsky, and G. Ledwich, “An Algebraic Approach for Determination of DG Parameters to Support Voltage Profiles in Radial Distribution Networks”. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1351–1360, 2014.

T. Soares, F. Pereira, H. Morais, and Z. Vale, “Cost Allocation Model for Distribution Networks considering High Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources”. Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 124, pp. 120–132, 2015.

D. R. Biggar and M. R. Hesamzadeh, The Economics of Electricity Markets. 2014.

A. Nieto, “Optimizing Prices for Small-scale Distributed Generation Resources: A review of Principles and Design Elements”. Electr. J., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 31–41, 2016.

M. Engelken, B. Römer, M. Drescher, I. M. Welpe, and A. Picot, “Comparing Drivers, Barriers, and Opportunities of Business Models for Renewable Energies: A review”. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 60, pp. 795–809, 2016.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14483/23448393.10986

Creative Commons License

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives

Facultad de Ingeniería

Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas

ISSN 0121-750X   E-ISSN 2344-8393

https://doi.org/10.14483/issn.2344-8393