Una Revisión sobre Materiales para Almacenamiento de Energía Solar Térmica

A Survey of Materials for Solar Thermal Energy Storage

Keywords: Solar thermal energy, thermal energy storage, phase change materials, bibliographic survey (en_US)
Keywords: Energía solar térmica, acumulación térmica, materiales de cambio de fase, revisión bibliográfica (es_ES)

Abstract (es_ES)

Contexto: El panorama energético y medioambiental que hoy día enfrenta nuestra sociedad, demanda del empleo de fuentes renovables de energía, abundantes, limpias y apartadas de las tensiones geopolíticas asociadas a los combustibles fósiles. En este escenario la energía solar térmica se presenta como una opción viable y funcional. Su desventaja radica en el carácter intermitente de la radiación solar. De allí que los procesos de almacenamiento de energía solar térmica cobren especial relevancia para solucionarlo. El propósito de este artículo es presentar una revisión bibliográfica sobre este tema de interés.

Método: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en el catálogo Scopus, utilizando como criterio de búsqueda la frase: “solar thermal energy storage materials”. Este patrón de búsqueda se aplicó al título, los resúmenes y las palabras claves de los artículos consultados. Con las herramientas de análisis bibliométrico de esta base de datos bibliográfica, se seleccionaron los documentos más referenciados, con los cuales se procedió a realizar la revisión.

Resultados: Se destaca un creciente interés en la comunidad científica por esta práctica energética a partir de 2010. Se presentan las características, los avances y tendencias en los sistemas que emplean materiales de almacenamiento de energía térmica por calor sensible y por calor latente, materiales de cambio de fase compuestos, y por último los materiales termoquímicos de almacenamiento térmico.

Conclusiones: La mejora de la conductividad térmica de los materiales de almacenamiento térmico es un área importante en las actuales investigaciones. Por otra parte, se analizan prácticas rentables para materia-les de cambio de fase micro-encapsulado y materiales compuestos. La optimización de las propiedades termo-físicas como el punto de fusión de los materiales de almacenamiento térmico, se exploran con técnicas como las mezclas eutécticas y la longitud de la cadena de hidrocarburos. Los materiales termoquímicos se encuentran en fase de laboratorio; estos tendrán un gran potencial como materiales de acumulación térmica en el futuro, dado su gran capacidad de almacenamiento de energía por unidad de volumen.

Abstract (en_US)

Context: The energy and environmental panorama that our societies confront nowadays, demand for renew-able, clean and abundant sources of energy, not reliant on fossil fuels and detached from the geopolitical pressures the latter represent. In this scenario solar thermal energy arises as a viable and functional option. The main disadvantage of this emerging source of energy lies in the intermittent availability of solar radiation. Because of this difficulty, efficient processes for the storage of thermal solar energy becomes a highly relevant area of research. The aim of this paper is to present a survey on this topic.

Method: A bibliographic review was carried out using the Scopus catalog. The search criteria for this purpose was defined using the following terms: solar+thermal+energy+storage+materials. This search pattern was applied to the title, abstracts and keywords of the contributions. Using the bibliometric tools of the citation database, the most cited documents were selected and the survey was developed.

Results: A growing interest in the scientific community regarding this energy practice is evident starting from 2010. Characteristics, advances and trends in systems that use thermal energy storage materials are presented for sensible and latent heat, materials compound changeover phase, and finally thermo-chemical thermal storage materials.

Conclusions: Improving the thermal conductivity of thermal storage materials is an important trend in current re-search. On the other hand, profitable practices for micro-encapsulated phase change materials and composite materials are analyzed. The optimization of thermo-physical properties as the melting point of thermal storage materials is explored with techniques such as eutectic mixtures and hydro-carbon chain length. Although the thermochemical materials are still in laboratory stage, they have a great potential as thermal storage materials in the future, given their large energy storage capacity per unit volume.

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Author Biography

Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo, Research Management Learning (RML)

Nació en Cienfuegos, Cuba. Es Ingeniero Mecánico de la Universidad de Cienfuegos “Carlos Rafael Rodríguez”, Cienfuegos, Cuba. Obtuvo su título de Maestría en Eficiencia Energética en la Universidad de Cienfuegos, Cienfuegos, Cuba.

Se desempeñó como profesor investigar del Centro de Estudios de Energía y Medio Ambiente (CEEMA), Universidad de Cienfuegos, durante 5 años. Actualmente se desempeña como editor de la REVISTA PUBLICANDO del grupo empresarial Research Management Learning (RML), Quito, Ecuador.

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How to Cite
Bravo Hidalgo, D. (2018). A Survey of Materials for Solar Thermal Energy Storage. Ingeniería, 23(2), 144-165. https://doi.org/10.14483/23448393.12510
Published: 2018-05-31
Section
Environmental Engineering