Índices de calidad y contaminación del agua: una revisión bibliográfica

Water quality indices (WQI) and contamination indices (WPI) a bibliographic review

Autores/as

Palabras clave:

surface water, groundwater, pollution Index (WPI), Water Quality Index (WQI), physicochemical parameters (en).

Palabras clave:

agua superficial, agua subterránea, Índice de contaminación (ICO), Índice de Calidad del Agua (ICA), parámetros fisicoquímicos (es).

Resumen (es)

Contexto: las fuentes de agua superficiales son el recurso fundamental en toda actividad o proceso de desarrollo, pues su eje representa un interés de interés. No obstante, las actividades antropogénicas han generado un deterioro de los cuerpos de agua, alterando considerablemente sus propiedades, las características fisicoquímicas y microbiológica, las cuales son los indicadores fundamentales de los niveles de contaminación en la dinámica de los cuerpos hídricos. A nivel individual, estos cuerpos hídricos solo presentan una idea de su concentración en las muestras
analizadas, por lo que para tener una evaluación de la calidad del lecho se debe integrar estas variables a través de Indicadores de Calidad e Indicadores de contaminación (ICA e ICO) en  sistemas loticos, lenticos y subterráneos.

Metodología: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en la base de datos y plataforma digital sciencedirect, utilizando como criterio de búsqueda la frase “water quality index and pollution index”. Este patrón de búsqueda se aplicó a las palabras claves de los artículos consultados. Se seleccionaron los documentos más relevantes de los últimos 10 años, con los cuales se procedió a realizar la revisión.

Resultados: la forma más común de caracterizar el agua es a través de determinar sus parámetros fisicoquímicos y analizarlos con valores los máximos que son permitidos nacional e internacionalmente. Así pues, los Índices de Calidad del Agua y los Índices de Contaminación se convierten en métodos útiles, pues tienen un uso simple y práctico que ayuda a identificar  problema relacionado con los niveles de concentración que varían en los cuerpos loticos, lenticos y subterráneos. En esta investigación, se presentan los ICA e ICO más usados en la revisión  bibliográfica y se establece que los países donde más investigación se realizaron es China, India, Brasil, Nigeria e Indonesia.

Conclusiones: los índices de calidad del agua y el índice de contaminación se han implementado de manera reiterativa en los últimos años en varios países del mundo con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad de cuerpos de agua tanto superficial (ríos, lagos, mares) como subterráneas. De igual manera, se han desarrollado nuevos índices a partir de algunos ICA existentes.

Resumen (en)

Context: surface water sources are the fundamental resource in any activity or development process as an axis of interest for their use. However, anthropogenic activities have deteriorated bodies of water, considerably altering their properties, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, which are the fundamental indicators of contamination levels in the dynamics of water bodies. At an individual level, they only represent an idea of their concentration in the analyzed samples. Therefore, to assess the quality of the bed, these variables must be integrated through Quality Indicators and Contamination Indicators (WQI and WPI) in lotic, lentic, and underground systems.

Methodoly: a bibliographic review was carried out in the Sciencedirect database and digital platform, using the phrase “water quality index and pollution index” as search criteria. This search pattern was applied to the keywords of the articles consulted. The most relevant documents of the last 10 years were selected, with which the review was performed.

Results: the most common way to characterize water involves determining its physicochemical parameters and analyzing them against national or international maximum permissible values. This process transforms Water Quality Indices and Pollution Indices into useful methods with a simple and practical applications, helping to identify problems related to the concentration levels that vary in lotic, lentic, and underground bodies. This research presents the most frequently used WQIand WPI based on the bibliographic review, revealing that the countries where more research has been conducted are China, India, Brazil, Nigeria, and Indonesia.

Conclusions: the water quality indices and contamination index have been repeatedly implemented in recent years in various countries around the world with the aim of evaluating the quality of both surface (rivers, lakes, seas) and groundwater (water streams). Similarly, new indices have been developed from some existing WQI.

Biografía del autor/a

Jaime Luis Ariza Restrepo, Universidad Popular del Cesar

Ingeniero Ambiental y Sanitario, estudiante de Maestría en Ciencias Ambientales. Profesor de la Universidad Popular del Cesar. Valledupar, Colombia.

Yim James Rodríguez Diaz, Universidad Popular del Cesar

Ingeniero Ambiental, Magíster en Ingeniería Ambiental. Instructor de la Universidad Popular del Cesar. Valledupar, Colombia.

Hernando Carlos Oñate Barraza , Universidad Popular del Cesar

Ingeniero Sanitario y Ambiental, Magíster en Ingeniería Ambiental. Instructor de la Universidad Popular del Cesar. Valledupar, Colombia

Referencias

Abdel, A., Ali, M., & Goher, M. (2017). Indices of water quality and metal pollution of Nile River, Egypt. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 43(1), 21-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejar.2016.12.006

Agencia Nacional del Agua [ANA]. (2017). Indicadores de qualidade - índice de qualidade das água (IQA). Obtenido de http://pnqa.ana.gov.br/indicadores-indice-aguas.aspx

Barbulescu, A., Barbes, L., & Dumitriu, C. (2021). Assessing the Water Pollution of the Brahmaputra River Using Water Quality Indexes. Toxics, 9(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9110297

Ben, F., Boughariou, E., & Bouri, S. (2021). Multicriteria-analysis of deep groundwater quality using WQI and fuzzy logic tool in GIS: A case study of Kebilli region, SW Tunisia. Journal of African Earth Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2021.104224

Brown, R., McClelland, N., Deininger, R., & Tozer, R. (1970). A water quality index-do we dare? Water & sewage works, 117(10), 339-343.

Dao, V., Urban, W., & Hazra, S. (2020). Introducing the modification of Canadian Water Quality Index. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2020.100457

Das, A., Joardar, M., De, A., Mridha, D., Chowdhury, N., Bin, M. T., . . . Roychowdhury, T. (2021). Pollution index and health risk assessment of arsenic through different groundwater sources and its load on soil-paddy-rice system in a part of Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2021.100652

Dash, S., & Kalamdhad, A. (2021). Science mapping approach to critical reviewing of published literature on water quality indexing. Ecological Indicators, 128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107862

Díaz, L., Espinosa, A., & Molina, G. (2020). Salud ambiental del río Ranchería a través de macroinvertebrados acuáticos en el área de influencia del complejo carbonífero El Cerrejón. Tecnura, 24(65), 49-63. https://doi.org/10.14483/22487638.15773

Dimri, D., Daverey, A., Kumar, A., & Sharma, A. (2021). Monitoring water quality of River Ganga using multivariate techniques and WQI (Water Quality Index) in Western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, 15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enmm.2020.100375

Dutra, M., Teixeira, O., Ramos, J., & Libânio, M. (2019). Evaluating the surface Water quality index fuzzy and its influence on water treatment. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2019.100890

Effendi, H. (2016). River Water Quality Preliminary Rapid Assessment Using Pollution Index. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2016.03.108

Effendi, H., Romanto, & Wardiatno, Y. (2015). Water Quality Status of Ciambulawung River, Banten Province, Based on Pollution Index and NSF-WQI. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 24, 228-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2015.03.030

Egbueri, J., Ameh, P., & Unigwe, C. (2020). Integrating entropy-weighted water quality index and multiple pollution indices towards a better understanding of drinking water quality in Ojoto area, SE Nigeria. Scientific African. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00644

Gad, M., El-Safa, A., Magda, M., Farouk, M., Hussein, H., Alnemari, A., . . . Eid, E. (2021). Integration of Water Quality Indices and Multivariate Modeling for Assessing Surface Water Quality in Qaroun Lake, Egypt. Water, 13(16), 2258. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162258

Gayer, F., de Angelis, D., de Angelis, A., & Poletti, E. (2021). Use of Complex Network Modelling to Assess the Influence of the Parameters on Water Quality of Rivers. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-021-05270-5

Gikas, G., Sylaios, G., Tsihrintzis, V., Konstantinou, I., Albanis, T., & Boskidis, I. (2020). Comparative evaluation of river chemical status based on WFD methodology and CCME water quality index. Science of The Total Environment, 745. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140849

Granitto, M., Diodato, S., & Rodríguez, P. (2021). Water quality index including periphyton chlorophyll-a in forested urban watersheds from Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). Ecological Indicators, 126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107614

Guirao, J., Olmedo, A., & Ferrer, E. (2008). El artículo de revisión. Revista Iberoamericana de Enfermeria Comunitaria. Obtenido de http://revista.enfermeriacomunitaria.org/articuloCompleto.php?ID=7

Gupta, S., & Gupta, S. (2021). A critical review on water quality index tool: Genesis, evolution and future directions. Ecological Informatics, 63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2021.101299

Hasan, M., Shahriar, A., & Jim, K. (2019). Water pollution in Bangladesh and its impact on public health. Heliyon, 5(8). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02145

Hasan, M., Ahmed, M., & Shafiquzzaman, M. (2020). Water quality indices to assess the spatiotemporal variations of Dhaleshwari river in central Bangladesh. Environmental and Sustainability Indicators, 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indic.2020.100068

Hossain, M., & Patra, P. (2020). Water pollution index – A new integrated approach to rank water quality. Ecological Indicators, 117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106668

Hurley, T., Sadiq, R., & Mazumder, A. (2012). Adaptation and evaluation of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) for use as an effective tool to characterize drinking source water quality. Water Research, 46(11), 3544- 3552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.03.061

Karaouzas, I., Kapetanaki, N., Mentzafou, A., Kanellopoulos, T., & Skoulikidis, N. (2021). Heavy metal contamination status in Greek surface waters: A review with application and evaluation of pollution indices. Chemosphere, 263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128192

Khadija, D., Hicham, A., Rida, A., Hicham, E., Nordine, N., & Najlaa, F. (2021). Surface water quality assessment in the semi-arid area by a combination of heavy metal pollution indices and statistical approaches for sustainable management. Environmental Challenges, 5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envc.2021.100230

Klamt, R., Lobo, E., & da Costa, A. (2021). Development of a Water Quality Index (WQI) for public supply in the Vale do Rio Pardo region, RS, Brazil. Ambiente & Água, 16(4). https://doi.org/10.4136/ambi-agua.2711

Kumar, M., Nagdev, R., Tripathi, R., Singh, V., Ranjan, P., Soheb, M., & Ramanathan, A. (2019). Geospatial and multivariate analysis of trace metals in tubewell water using for drinking purpose in the upper Gangetic basin, India: Heavy metal pollution index. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2018.10.001

Kumar, V., Parihar, R., Sharma, A., Bakshi, P., Singh Sidhu, G., Bali, A., . . . Comino, J. (2019). Global evaluation of heavy metal content in surface water bodies: A meta- analysis using heavy metal pollution indices and multivariate statistical analyses. Chemosphere, 236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124364

Liu, S., Lou, S., Kuang, C., Huang, W., Chen, W., Zhang, J., & Zhong, G. (2011). Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(10), 2220- 2229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.06.021

Ma, Z., Li, H., Ye, Z., Wen, J., Hu, Y., & Liu, Y. (2020). Application of modified water quality index (WQI) in the assessment of coastal water quality in main aquaculture areas of Dalian, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111285

Medeiros, A., Faial, K., do Carmo, K., da Silva, I., de Oliveira, M., Guimarães, R., & Mendonça, N. (2017). Quality index of the surface water of Amazonian rivers in industrial areas in Pará, Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 123(1-2), 156-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.09.002

Moyano, Á., Cuadros, F., Pabón, A., & Trujillo, J. (2021). Impacto ambiental del vertimiento de aguas servidas enaglomerados urbanos ilegales del municipio de Villavicencio, Colombia. Tecnura, 25(68), 43-62. https://doi.org/10.14483/22487638.16273

Nayak, J., Patil, L., & Patki, V. (2020). Development of water quality index for Godavari River (India) based on fuzzy inference system. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2020.100350

Nayak, J., Patil, L., & Patki, V. (2021). Artificial neural network-based water quality index (WQI) for river Godavari (India). Materials Today: Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.03.100

Noori, R., Berndtsson, R., Hosseinzadeh, M., Adamowski, J. F., & Abyaneh, M. R. (2019). A critical review on the application of the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index. Environmental Pollution, 244, 575-587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.10.076

Oñate, H., & Cortéz, G. (2020). Tecnura • Estado del agua del río Cesar por vertimientos residuales de la ciudad de Valledupar. Bioindicación por índice BMWP/Co. Tecnura, 24(65), 39-48. https://doi.org/10.14483/22487638.15766

Pandit, D., Kumari, R., & Shitanshu, S. (2022). A comparative assessment of the status of Surajkund and Rani Pond, Aurangabad, Bihar, India using overall Index of Pollution and Water Quality Index. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 42(3), 149-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.11.009

Pesce, S., & Wunderlin, D. (2000). Use of water quality indices to verify the impact of Córdoba City (Argentina) on Suquía River. Water Research, 34(11), 2915-2926. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00036-1

Rahman, K., Barua, S., & Imran, H. (2021). Assessment of water quality and apportionment of pollution sources of an urban lake using multivariate statistical analysis. Cleaner Engineering and Technology, 5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clet.2021.100309

Rana, R., & Ganguly, R. (2020). Water quality indices: challenges and applications—an overview. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-06135-7

Rezaie, M., Attar, N., Mohammadzadeh, A., Murti, M., Ahmed, A., Fai, C., . . . El-Shafie, A. (2020). Physicochemical parameters data assimilation for efficient improvement of wáter quality index prediction: Comparative assessment of a noise suppression hybridization approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122576

Sahoo, M., Patra, K., & Khatua, K. (2015). Inference of Water Quality Index Using ANFIA and PCA. Aquatic Procedia, 4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqpro.2015.02.139 Sciencedirect. (10 de 11 de 2021). Acerca de ScienceDirect. Obtenido de sciencedirect.com: https://www.elsevier.com/solutions/sciencedirect

Shankar, B., & Raman, S. (2020). A novel approach for the formulation of Modified Water Quality Index and its application for groundwater quality appraisal and grading. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 26(10), 2812-2823. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2019.1688638

Sharma, V., Sharma, M., Pandita, S., Kumar, V., Kour, J., & Sharma, N. (2021). 9 - Assessment of water quality using different pollution indices and multivariate statistical techniques. Heavy Metals in the Environment, 165-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-821656-9.00009-2

Sunitha, V., Reddy, Y., Suvarna, B., & Reddy, B. (2022). Human health risk assessment (HHRA) of fluoride and nitrate using pollution index of groundwater (PIG) in and around hard rock terrain of Cuddapah, A.P. South India. Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 4, 113-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enceco.2021.12.002

Suriadikusumah, A., Mulyani, O., Sudirja, R., Sofyan, E., Maulana, M., & Mulyono, A. (2021). Analysis of the water quality at Cipeusing river, Indonesia using the pollution index method. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 41(3), 177-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.08.001

Torres, P., Cruz, C., & Patiño, P. (2009). Índices de calidad de agua en fuentes superficiales utilizadas en la producción de agua para consumo humano. Una revisión crítica. Revista Ingenierías Universidad de Medellín, 8(15). Obtenido de http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/rium/v8n15s1/v8n15s1a09.pdf

Torres, P., Hernán , C., & Patiño, P. (2009). Índices de calidad de agua en fuentes superficiales utilizadas en la producción de agua para consumo humano: Una revisión crítica. Revista Ingenierías Universidad de Medellín, 8(15), 79-94. Obtenido de http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1692-33242009000300009

Uddin, G., Nash, S., & Olbert, A. (2021). A review of water quality index models and their use for assessing surface water quality. Ecological Indicators, 122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.107218

Unda, J., Ruiz, E., Martínez, M., Vidal, M., & Antigüedad, I. (2020). Multivariate statistical analyses for water and sediment quality index development: A study of susceptibility in an urban river. Science of The Total Environment. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135026

Ustao˘glu, F., & Tepe, Y. (2019). Water quality and sediment contamination assessment of Pazarsuyu Stream, Turkey using multivariate statistical methods and pollution indicators. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 7(1), 47-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2018.09.001

Ustao˘glu, F., Tepe, Y., & Ta¸s, B. (2020). Assessment of stream quality and health risk in a subtropical Turkey river system: A combined approach using statistical analysis and water quality index. Ecological Indicators, 113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105815

Vera, O. (2016). Como publicar artículos de revisión o actualización. Cuadernos Hospital de Clínicas, 57(3), 62-67. Obtenido de http://www.scielo.org.bo/scielo.php?pid=S165267762016000300009&script=sci_arttext

Wator, K., & Zdechlik, R. (2021). Application of water quality indices to the assessment of the effect of geothermal water discharge on river water quality – case study from the Podhale region (Southern Poland). Ecological Indicators, 121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.107098

Yu, C., Yin, X., Li, H., & Yang, Z. (2020). A hybrid water-quality-index and grey water footprint assessment approach for comprehensively evaluating water resources utilization considering multiple pollutants. Journal of Cleaner Production, 248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119225

Zhao, E., Kuo, Y., & Chen, N. (2021). Assessment of water quality under various environmental features using a site-specific weighting water quality index. Science of The Total Environment, 783. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146868

Cómo citar

APA

Ariza Restrepo, J. L., Rodríguez Diaz, Y. J., y Oñate Barraza , H. C. (2023). Índices de calidad y contaminación del agua: una revisión bibliográfica. Tecnura, 27(77), 121–140. https://doi.org/10.14483/22487638.20052

ACM

[1]
Ariza Restrepo, J.L. et al. 2023. Índices de calidad y contaminación del agua: una revisión bibliográfica. Tecnura. 27, 77 (oct. 2023), 121–140. DOI:https://doi.org/10.14483/22487638.20052.

ACS

(1)
Ariza Restrepo, J. L.; Rodríguez Diaz, Y. J.; Oñate Barraza , H. C. Índices de calidad y contaminación del agua: una revisión bibliográfica. Tecnura 2023, 27, 121-140.

ABNT

ARIZA RESTREPO, Jaime Luis; RODRÍGUEZ DIAZ, Yim James; OÑATE BARRAZA , Hernando Carlos. Índices de calidad y contaminación del agua: una revisión bibliográfica. Tecnura, [S. l.], v. 27, n. 77, p. 121–140, 2023. DOI: 10.14483/22487638.20052. Disponível em: https://revistas.udistrital.edu.co/index.php/Tecnura/article/view/20052. Acesso em: 18 abr. 2024.

Chicago

Ariza Restrepo, Jaime Luis, Yim James Rodríguez Diaz, y Hernando Carlos Oñate Barraza. 2023. «Índices de calidad y contaminación del agua: una revisión bibliográfica». Tecnura 27 (77):121-40. https://doi.org/10.14483/22487638.20052.

Harvard

Ariza Restrepo, J. L., Rodríguez Diaz, Y. J. y Oñate Barraza , H. C. (2023) «Índices de calidad y contaminación del agua: una revisión bibliográfica», Tecnura, 27(77), pp. 121–140. doi: 10.14483/22487638.20052.

IEEE

[1]
J. L. Ariza Restrepo, Y. J. Rodríguez Diaz, y H. C. Oñate Barraza, «Índices de calidad y contaminación del agua: una revisión bibliográfica», Tecnura, vol. 27, n.º 77, pp. 121–140, oct. 2023.

MLA

Ariza Restrepo, Jaime Luis, et al. «Índices de calidad y contaminación del agua: una revisión bibliográfica». Tecnura, vol. 27, n.º 77, octubre de 2023, pp. 121-40, doi:10.14483/22487638.20052.

Turabian

Ariza Restrepo, Jaime Luis, Yim James Rodríguez Diaz, y Hernando Carlos Oñate Barraza. «Índices de calidad y contaminación del agua: una revisión bibliográfica». Tecnura 27, no. 77 (octubre 12, 2023): 121–140. Accedido abril 18, 2024. https://revistas.udistrital.edu.co/index.php/Tecnura/article/view/20052.

Vancouver

1.
Ariza Restrepo JL, Rodríguez Diaz YJ, Oñate Barraza HC. Índices de calidad y contaminación del agua: una revisión bibliográfica. Tecnura [Internet]. 12 de octubre de 2023 [citado 18 de abril de 2024];27(77):121-40. Disponible en: https://revistas.udistrital.edu.co/index.php/Tecnura/article/view/20052

Descargar cita

Visitas

75

Dimensions


PlumX


Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.
Loading...