Importancia y utilidad de la evaluación de la calidad de suelos a través del componente microbiano: Experiencias en sistemas silvopastoriles

Importance and utility of microbial elements in evaluating soil quality: case studies in silvopastoral systems

  • Victoria Eugenia Vallejo Quintero Victoria Eugenia Vallejo Q., M.Sc., Ph.D Docente de Ingenieria Ambiental Universidad Central - Edificio Horep Oficina 301 Telefono: 57 (1) 3239868 Ext. 3151 Carrera 5 N° 21 - 38 Bogotá D.C., Colombia
Palabras clave: Calidad del suelo, indicadores de calidad, microorganismos edáficos, sistemas agroforestales, sistemas silvopastoriles, uso del suelo (es_ES)

Resumen (es_ES)

La sostenibilidad ambiental se alcanza a través del mantenimiento y el mejoramiento de la calidad del suelo. Dicha calidad es definida, como la “capacidad del suelo para funcionar”; y se evalúa midiendo un grupo mínimo de datos que corresponden a diversas propiedades edáficas. Sin embargo, no todos los parámetros cumplen con todas las condiciones que debe reunir un indicador ideal como: generar una clara discriminación entre los sistemas de uso y/o manejo evaluados, ser sensibles a condiciones de estrés asociadas con intervenciones antrópicas, ser de fácil medición, accesibles a muchos usuarios y que respondan en escalas de tiempo cortas. Debido a que la pérdida de calidad está asociada con la alteración de numerosos procesos realizados por los microorganismos edáficos, además de que reúnen las condiciones anteriormente mencionadas, se han propuesto como indicadores para diagnosticar el impacto generado por cambios en el uso del suelo. De esta manera, a través de la evaluación de su densidad, actividad y/o estructura-composición se puede conocer sí los actuales sistemas de manejo conservan, mejoran o degradan el suelo. En este artículo se realiza una revisión de los principales conceptos relacionados con la calidad del suelo y sus indicadores. Adicionalmente, se aborda y discute acerca del efecto generado sobre la calidad edáfica debido a la implementación de sistemas silvopastoriles, haciendo énfasis en indicadores microbianos.

Resumen (en_US)

Environmental sustainability is achieved by main-taining and improving soil quality. This quality is defined as “the ability of soil to function” and is evaluated through measuring a minimum set of data corresponding to different soil properties (physical, chemical and biological). However, assessment of these properties does not meet all the conditions necessary to be ideal indicators such as: clearly discriminating between the systems use and / or management evaluation, sensitivity to stress conditions associated with anthropogenic actions, easy measurement, accessibility to many users and short response time. Because loss in quality is associated with the alteration of many processes performed by soil microorganisms they meet the above conditions and have been proposed as valid indicators for diagnosing the impact of changes in land-use and ecosystem restoration. Thus, through the evaluation of the density, activity and /or structure-composition of microorganisms we can determine whether current management systems maintain, improve or degrade the soil. In this article we review the main concepts related to soil quality and its indicators. We discuss the effect of the implementation of silvopastoral systems on soil quality, with an emphasis on the use of microbial indicators.

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Biografía del autor/a

Victoria Eugenia Vallejo Quintero, Victoria Eugenia Vallejo Q., M.Sc., Ph.D Docente de Ingenieria Ambiental Universidad Central - Edificio Horep Oficina 301 Telefono: 57 (1) 3239868 Ext. 3151 Carrera 5 N° 21 - 38 Bogotá D.C., Colombia

Docente e investigador de Tiempo Completo

Universidad Central

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Cómo citar
Vallejo Quintero, V. E. (2013). Importancia y utilidad de la evaluación de la calidad de suelos a través del componente microbiano: Experiencias en sistemas silvopastoriles. Colombia Forestal, 16(1), 83-99. https://doi.org/10.14483/udistrital.jour.colomb.for.2013.1.a06
Publicado: 2013-01-01
Sección
Artículos de revisión