Evaluación de la calidad de suelos en agroecosistemas de Colombia a través de la selección de un conjunto mínimo de datos

Evaluation of soil quality in agroecosystems of Colombia through the selection of a minimum data set

Palabras clave: Agroecology, Cachipay, soil quality index, soil properties, soil degradation (en_US)
Palabras clave: agroecología, Cachipay, degradación del suelo, índices de calidad, propiedades del suelo (es_ES)

Resumen (es_ES)

El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la calidad de suelos mediante índices de calidad constituidos por tres conjuntos mínimos de datos (tres, cinco y seis indicadores), en cinco agroecosistemas con cultivo de café (Coffea arabica) orgánico, guatila o chayote (Sechium edule), policultivo (Anthurium andraeanum, Manihot esculenta, Musa balbisiana o Zea mays), pastizal convencional (Pennisetum clandestinum y Cynodon dactylon) y Guaduales (Guadua angustifolia), en el municipio de Cachipay (Cundinamarca). Durante el muestreo se seleccionaron aleatoriamente dos áreas representativas para cada agroecosistema y se delimitaron dos cuadrantes (2.5 × 2.5 m) de los que se tomaron dos muestras compuestas de suelo (20 submuestras; profundidad de 0-15 cm). Se evidenció que independiente del conjunto mínimo de datos empleado, los menores índices de calidad de suelos lo presentaron el pastizal convencional y el cultivo de guatila. Los valores mayores del índice de calidad correspondieron al policultivo, guaduales y cultivo de café. Se concluye que el uso de variables como la densidad aparente, el índice de estabilidad, el pH, la actividad deshidrogenasa, el recuento de heterótrofos y las bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfato son indicadores relevantes que permiten evaluar adecuadamente la calidad edáfica en agroecosistemas.

Resumen (en_US)

This study aimed to evaluate the soil quality through quality indexes consisting of three minimum data sets (3, 5 and 6 indicators) in five agroecosystems with organic coffee (Coffea arabica), guatila or chayote (Sechium edule), polyculture (Anthurium andraeanum, Manihot esculenta, Musa balbisiana o Zea mays), conventional pasture (Pennisetum clandestinum y Cynodon dactylon) and Guadua (Guadua angustifolia), in the municipality of Cachipay (Cundinamarca). During the sampling, two representative areas were randomly selected for each agroecosystem and two quadrants (2.5 x 2.5 m) were delimited, from which two composite samples of soil were taken (20 subsamples, depth of 0-15 cm). It was evidenced that independent of the minimum set of data used, the lowest soil quality indexes were presented by the conventional pasture and the guatila culture. The highest values of the quality index corresponded to polyculture, forest and organic coffee cultivation. In conclusion, the use of variables such as bulk density, stability index, pH, dehydrogenase activity, heterotrophic density and solubilized phosphate bacteria are important indicators to measure the soil quality in agroecosystems.

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Biografía del autor/a

Victoria Eugenia Vallejo Quintero, Universidad Central

Docente e investigador de Tiempo Completo

Universidad Central

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Cómo citar
Vallejo Quintero, V. E. (2020). Evaluación de la calidad de suelos en agroecosistemas de Colombia a través de la selección de un conjunto mínimo de datos . Colombia Forestal, 23(1). https://doi.org/10.14483/2256201X.14856
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Artículos de investigación científica y tecnológica