DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14483/23448393.21003

Published:

2024-01-17

Issue:

Vol. 29 No. 1 (2024): January-April

Section:

Biomedical Engineering

Statistical Analysis by Linear Regression of the Prevalence of Flatfoot in Preschool Children of a Mexican Community

Análisis estadístico por regresión lineal de la prevalencia de pie plano en preescolar de una comunidad de México

Authors

Keywords:

statistical method, linear regression, flatfoot (en).

Keywords:

pie plano, método estadístico, regresión lineal (es).

Downloads

Abstract (en)

Context: In Mexico's rural towns, it is essential to generate a culture of studying the prevalence of flat feet in children aged 3 to 5, whose arch is still in development and can be corrected. By means of a computer application, statistical bar graph and correlation studies via linear regression can validate the results obtained regarding the categorization of infants' footprint type, which are acquired through the Hernández Corvo index (HCI), Clarke’s angle protocol (CA), the Staheli index (SI), the Chippaux index (CI), and the body mass index (BMI).

Methods: A statistical analysis of the plantar footprint of 95 infants in a rural region of Mexico was carried out, employing a computational technique together with a photo-podoscope. Footprint images were acquired, processed, and classified. The footprint type was categorized with respect to the HCI, CA, and the Staheli-Chippaux index (SCI). The footprint distribution was validated via the linear regression method.

Results: We evidenced a prevalence of flat foot of 54,7% in relation to HCI, 58,9% in relation to CA, and 61,05% in relation to SCI, where the male gender was shown to be more susceptible (up to 28, 32, and 33 cases, respectively). The best prediction was obtained using the SI and the CI: 90,7 and 87,0% for the right and left feet, with a positive increase. No dependence on body composition was observed.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of the type of footstep, in its normal, cavus, and flat categories, shows the prevalence of flat feet among infants aged 3 to 5, with at least 28 cases, mostly male and without dependence on weight. Although it is difficult to perform plantar footprint diagnoses in the rural communities of Mexico, this statistical study highlights the importance of monitoring foot development in preschool infants with the advantages and practicality of computational techniques.

Abstract (es)

Contexto: En las comunidades de México, es fundamental generar una cultura de estudiar la prevalencia del pie plano en niños de 3 a 5 años, cuyo arco aún está en desarrollo y se puede corregir. Mediante el uso de una aplicación computacional, los estudios estadísticos de gráficos de barras y correlación por medio de regresión lineal validan los resultados sobre la categorización del tipo de pisada del infante, los cuales se adquieren mediante el índice Hernández Corvo (HCI), el protocolo del ángulo de Clarke (CA), el índice Staheli (SI), el índice Chippaux (CI) y el índice de masa corporal (BMI).

Método: Se realizó un análisis estadístico de la huella plantar de 95 infantes de una comunidad de México, empleando una técnica computacional junto con un fotopodoscopio. Se adquirió, procesó y clasificó la imagen de la pisada. Se categorizó el tipo de pisada con respecto al HCI, el CA y el índice Staheli-Chippaux (SCI). La distribución de las huellas se validó mediante el método de regresión lineal.

Resultados: Se evidenció una prevalencia de pie plano de 54,7 % respecto al HCI, 58,9 % respecto al CA y 61,05 % respecto al SCI, donde el sexo masculino fue el más susceptible (hasta 28, 32 y 33 casos). La mejor predicción se obtuvo mediante el SI y el CI: 90,7 y 87,0% para los pies derecho e izquierdo, con incremento positivo. No se observó dependencia con la composición corporal.

Conclusiones: El diagnóstico del tipo de pisada, en sus categorías normal, cavo y plano, evidencia la prevalencia del pie plano entre los infantes de 3 a 5 años, con al menos 28 casos, en su mayoría masculinos y sin dependencia del peso. Si bien es difícil realizar diagnósticos de huella plantar en las comunidades rurales de México, este estudio estadístico muestra la importancia de monitorear el desarrollo del pie en infantes de preescolar, con las ventajas y la practicidad de las técnicas computacionales.  

Author Biographies

Carlos I. Cabrera-Perez, National Technological Institute of Mexico

Mechatronics Engineering in National Technological Institute of Mexico/ Irapuato

Juan A. López-Valdez, National Technological Institute of Mexico

Mechatronics Engineering in National Technological Institute of Mexico/ Irapuato

Horacio Rostro-González, Universidad de Guanajuato

Full Professor, B titular. Eng. Electronic, SNI II. University of Guanajuato/DICIS

Jatziry S. Cano-Lara, Mexican Social Security Institute

Nutrition Specialist, IMSS/High Specialty Medicine Unit

Miroslava Cano-Lara, National Technological Institute of Mexico

Full Professor, B titular. Eng. Mechatronic, SNI I TecNM/Irapuato

References

M. Larrosa Pardo and S. Mas Moliné, "Alteraciones de la bóveda plantar," Rev. Esp. Reumatol., vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 489-498, Nov. 2003. https://www.elsevier.es/es-revista-revista-espanola-reumatologia-29-articulo-alteraciones-boveda-plantar-13055069

M. Riera Campillo, "El pie normal y su patología," Pediatría Integral, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 203-211, 2019. https://www.pediatriaintegral.es/wp-content/uploads/2019/xxiii04/04/n4-203-211_ManoliRiera.pdf

C. González Martin et al., "Variability between Clarke's angle and Chippaux-Smirak index for the diagnosis of flat feet," Colombia Médica, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 25-31, Jan. 2017. [https://doi.org/10.25100/cm.v48i1.1947 DOI: https://doi.org/10.25100/cm.v48i1.1947

M. R. Espichan, F. C. Gonzales, and E. C. Zavala, "Características epidemiológicas del pie plano y pie cavo en niños de 6 a 9 años de dos colegios nacionales de educación primaria," undergraduate thesis, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru, 2015. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12866/446

J. A. Aco Luna et al., “ Frecuencia de alteraciones de la huella plantar en escolares de una comunidad mexicana," Acta Ortopédica Mexicana, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 289-291, Sep. 2019. https://doi.org/10.35366/or195e DOI: https://doi.org/10.35366/OR195E

S. Lara Diéguez et al., "Análisis de los diferentes métodos de evaluación de la huella plantar," RETOS. Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, no. 19, pp. 49-53, Jan. 2011. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i19.34637 DOI: https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i19.34637

J. J. Rodríguez Salvador, "Técnica del radiofotopodograma," Imagen Diagnóstica, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 38-42, Mar. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2171-3669(11)70027-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2171-3669(11)70027-0

C. Murat Ӧzer and C. Barut, "Evaluation of the sole morphology of Professional football players," Int. SportMed J., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 8-17, Mar. 2012.

R. M. Queen et al., "Describing the medical longitudinal arch using footprint indices and a clinical grading system," Foot & Ankle Int., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 456-462, April 2007. https://doi.org/10.3113/fai.2007.0456 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3113/FAI.2007.0456

C. Ferrin et al., " Sistema de extracción automática de parámetros morfológicos de la huella plantar mediante técnicas de visión por computador en un sistema embebido," Revista Colombiana de Tecnologías Avanzadas, vol. 1, no. 23, pp. 80-86, 2014. https://doi.org/10.24054/rcta.v1i23.1893

A. Rosas Flores, "Diseño de una plantilla ergonómica que regule la presión plantar en jóvenes practicantes de baloncesto femenil: análisis biomecánico y de elemento finito," Master’s thesis, CIATEC, Mexico, 2021. http://ciatec.repositorioinstitucional.mx/jspui/handle/1019/167

S. Koirala et al., "Calculation of Staheli's plantar arch index, Chippaux-Smirak index, Clarke's angle prevalence and predictors of flat foot: A cross sectional study," Austin J. Anatomy, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-6, Jan. 2021. https://doi.org/10.26420/austinjanat.2021.1095 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26420/austinjanat.2021.1095

J. C. Zuil Escobar et al., "Evaluating the medial longitudinal arch of the foot: Correlations, reliability, and accuracy in people with a low arch," Physical Therapy, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 364-372, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzy149 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzy149

J. Marouvo et al., "Correlation between different methods to diagnose foot posture condition," Multidisciplinary Sci. J., no. 4, pp. 233-243, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/j4030019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/j4030019

R. Mahaffey et al., "Age-related changes in three-dimensional foot motion during barefoot walking in children aged between 7 and 11 years old," Gait & Posture, no. 95, pp. 38-43, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2022.04.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2022.04.001

C. E. Fuentes Venado et al., "Evaluación comparativa de pie plano en preescolares," Med. B. Children's Hospital of Mexico, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 312-319, 2020. https://doi.org/10.24875/bmhim.20000135 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24875/BMHIM.20000135

V. Bewick et al., “Statistics review 7:Correlation and regression,” Critical care, vol. 7, pp. 1-9. 2003. https://doi.org/10.1186/cc2401 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/cc2401

H. A. Miranda Camacho et al., “Interface for contour extraction and determination of morphologic parameters in digital images of footprints based on Hernandez-Corvo protocol,” CLAIB, México, 2019. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30648-9_48 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30648-9_48

A. Flores Cu and H. A. Miranda Camacho, "Desarrollo de interfaz para estudio estático de huella plantar en infante utilizando procesamiento digital, con diseño y manufactura de plantilla correctora," undergraduate thesis, TecNM/Irapuato, México, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.32331.77604

M. Cano et al., "Foot computational diagnosis though Hernández Corvo, Clarke and Staheli Chippaux index", unpublished, Int. Conf. Mechat., Elec. Autom. Eng. (ICMEAE).

How to Cite

APA

Cabrera-Perez, C. I., López-Valdez, J. A., Rostro-González, H., Cano-Lara, J. S., and Cano-Lara, M. (2024). Statistical Analysis by Linear Regression of the Prevalence of Flatfoot in Preschool Children of a Mexican Community. Ingeniería, 29(1), e21003. https://doi.org/10.14483/23448393.21003

ACM

[1]
Cabrera-Perez, C.I. et al. 2024. Statistical Analysis by Linear Regression of the Prevalence of Flatfoot in Preschool Children of a Mexican Community. Ingeniería. 29, 1 (Jan. 2024), e21003. DOI:https://doi.org/10.14483/23448393.21003.

ACS

(1)
Cabrera-Perez, C. I.; López-Valdez, J. A.; Rostro-González, H.; Cano-Lara, J. S.; Cano-Lara, M. Statistical Analysis by Linear Regression of the Prevalence of Flatfoot in Preschool Children of a Mexican Community. Ing. 2024, 29, e21003.

ABNT

CABRERA-PEREZ, Carlos I.; LÓPEZ-VALDEZ, Juan A.; ROSTRO-GONZÁLEZ, Horacio; CANO-LARA, Jatziry S.; CANO-LARA, Miroslava. Statistical Analysis by Linear Regression of the Prevalence of Flatfoot in Preschool Children of a Mexican Community. Ingeniería, [S. l.], v. 29, n. 1, p. e21003, 2024. DOI: 10.14483/23448393.21003. Disponível em: https://revistas.udistrital.edu.co/index.php/reving/article/view/21003. Acesso em: 13 jun. 2024.

Chicago

Cabrera-Perez, Carlos I., Juan A. López-Valdez, Horacio Rostro-González, Jatziry S. Cano-Lara, and Miroslava Cano-Lara. 2024. “Statistical Analysis by Linear Regression of the Prevalence of Flatfoot in Preschool Children of a Mexican Community”. Ingeniería 29 (1):e21003. https://doi.org/10.14483/23448393.21003.

Harvard

Cabrera-Perez, C. I. (2024) “Statistical Analysis by Linear Regression of the Prevalence of Flatfoot in Preschool Children of a Mexican Community”, Ingeniería, 29(1), p. e21003. doi: 10.14483/23448393.21003.

IEEE

[1]
C. I. Cabrera-Perez, J. A. López-Valdez, H. Rostro-González, J. S. Cano-Lara, and M. Cano-Lara, “Statistical Analysis by Linear Regression of the Prevalence of Flatfoot in Preschool Children of a Mexican Community”, Ing., vol. 29, no. 1, p. e21003, Jan. 2024.

MLA

Cabrera-Perez, Carlos I., et al. “Statistical Analysis by Linear Regression of the Prevalence of Flatfoot in Preschool Children of a Mexican Community”. Ingeniería, vol. 29, no. 1, Jan. 2024, p. e21003, doi:10.14483/23448393.21003.

Turabian

Cabrera-Perez, Carlos I., Juan A. López-Valdez, Horacio Rostro-González, Jatziry S. Cano-Lara, and Miroslava Cano-Lara. “Statistical Analysis by Linear Regression of the Prevalence of Flatfoot in Preschool Children of a Mexican Community”. Ingeniería 29, no. 1 (January 17, 2024): e21003. Accessed June 13, 2024. https://revistas.udistrital.edu.co/index.php/reving/article/view/21003.

Vancouver

1.
Cabrera-Perez CI, López-Valdez JA, Rostro-González H, Cano-Lara JS, Cano-Lara M. Statistical Analysis by Linear Regression of the Prevalence of Flatfoot in Preschool Children of a Mexican Community. Ing. [Internet]. 2024 Jan. 17 [cited 2024 Jun. 13];29(1):e21003. Available from: https://revistas.udistrital.edu.co/index.php/reving/article/view/21003

Download Citation

Visitas

71

Dimensions


PlumX


Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Loading...