Dise˜no Conceptual de una Planta de Extracci´on de Saponinas Presentes en el Jugo de Fique

Conceptual Design or a Plant of Extraction of Saponins Presents in the Fique’s Juice

Palabras clave: decision matrix, extraction, fique, saponins (en_US)
Palabras clave: Extracción, fique, matriz de decisión, saponinas (es_ES)

Resumen (es_ES)

Contexto: Las saponinas corresponden a un grupo de mol´eculas con aplicabilidad industrial, especialmente para el sector alimenticio como estabilizante de espuma en bebidas gaseosas. En el per´ıodo comprendido entre el 2013 y 2017, su mercado increment´o aproximadamente un 50 %, convirti´endose en un sector econ´omico importante que ha promovido un marcado inter´es en la optimizaci´on de diversos procesos de extracci´on desde diferentes fuentes naturales.

M´etodo: Se realiz´o una revisi´on bibliogr´afica evaluando aplicabilidad, extracci´on y aspectos econ´omicos de las saponinas a nivel mundial. Se realiz´o el dise˜no conceptual de una planta piloto para la extracci´on de saponinas de jugo de fique con base en los resultados obtenidos del an´alisis de una matriz de decisi´on.

Resultados: Una alternativa viable para extraer saponinas de jugo de fique es la floculaci´on, cuyas ventajas radican en su simplicidad tecnol´ogica, bajo consumo energ´etico, aplicabilidad directa a la matriz de inter´es y uso de solventes como agua y etanol.

Conclusiones: Al utilizar como floculante el policloruro de aluminio (PAC), debido a su capacidad de remover materia org´anica y a su selectividad, se favorece la recuperaci´on de las saponinas en el clarificado. En el dise˜no conceptual, se presenta una planta piloto con una capacidad de 67.462 L/h y una eficiencia de 87,45 %.

Resumen (en_US)

Context: Saponins belong to a group of molecules with industrial applications, particularly in the food industry as a foam stabilizer in soft drinks. During 2013 to 2017, its market increased about 50%, becoming an important economic sector that has promoted a strong interest in the optimization of different extraction processes from different natural sources.

Method: A technological surveillance report was made evaluating the applicability, extraction and economic aspects of saponins worldwide. The conceptual design of a pilot plant for the extraction of saponins from fique’s juice was carried out based on the results obtained from the analysis of a decision matrix.

Results: A viable alternative for the extraction of saponins from fique’s juice is flocculation, which advantages lie on its technological simplicity, low energy consumption, direct applicability to the matrix of interest and use of solvents such as water and ethanol.

Conclusions: Using Aluminum Polychloride (PAC) as a flocculant, due to its ability to remove organic matter and its selectivity, saponins are recovered in the clarification. The conceptual design presents a pilot plant with a capacity of 67.462 L/h and an efficiency of 87,45%.

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Cómo citar
Vélez Salazar, Y. H., & Velásquez Flórez, M. A. (2020). Dise˜no Conceptual de una Planta de Extracci´on de Saponinas Presentes en el Jugo de Fique. Ingeniería, 25(1), 50-67. https://doi.org/10.14483/23448393.15298
Publicado: 2020-03-12
Sección
Ingeniería Química y de Petróleos